Source and full article In my view, there is a larger issue at stake here: what constitutes research that requires an export license? I would argue that the avian influenza H5N1 virus that Fouchier produced is not a biological weapon. Remember that while this virus could transmit among caged ferrets by aerosol, it was markedly attenuated. In other words, gaining the ability to transmit by aerosol came at a fitness cost that reduced the virulence of the virus in ferrets. Such a virus is not a biological weapon, and should not have been subject to EU export requirements.