Source and full article An avian influenza virus, A/environment/Zhenjiang/C13/2013(H5N6), was isolated from a live poultry market in eastern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was a novel reassortant virus with a neuraminidase (NA) gene from H6N6 viruses and the other seven genes from H5N1 viruses, which may pose a potential threat to human and animal health.

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Source and full article Sequence analysis revealed that this H4N2 virus strain was a novel reassortant avian influenza virus (AIV). Information about the complete genome sequence of the GX125D17 virus strain will be useful for epidemiological studies.

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Human H7N9 and H5N1 influenza viruses differ in induction of cytokines and tissue tropism.

September 12, 2014

Source and full article We compared these responses in both in vitro and in vivo models, and found that H5N1 and H7N9 infections exhibit distinct pathological, immunological and tissue tropism differences that could explain differences in clinical disease and viral transmission.

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Occurrence and reassortment of avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses derived from coinfected birds in China.

September 12, 2014

Source and full article IMPORTANCE: We found frequent occurrence of H7N9/H9N2 co-infection in chickens. The H7N9 outbreak lineage is confounded by ongoing reassortment between H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. The importance of H9N2 viruses as the source of novel avian influenza virus infections in humans requires continuous attention.

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Mutations to PB2 and NP proteins of an avian influenza virus combine to confer efficient growth in primary human respiratory cells.

September 12, 2014

Source and full article Our data show that as few as three mutations, in the PB2 and NP proteins, support robust growth of a low pathogenic, H1N1 duck isolate in primary human respiratory cells

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Accumulation of human-adapting mutations during circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza in humans in the UK.

September 12, 2014

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