Source and full article In August, we learned of outbreaks in three separate provinces of Vietnam (see Vietnam Orders Intensified H5N6 Surveillance), and today Xinhua News is reporting an outbreak last month in Heilongjiang province, more than 2000 miles due north of Vietnam.

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Source and full article Notification requirements, two city-level 2 times a month live poultry wholesale market virological and serological surveillance on all live birds designated retail trade

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Source and full article China ’s rapid development has created a “time bomb” of health problems arising from choking smog, reckless driving, widespread smoking, growing obesity and ignorance about mental illness, a new report warns.

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Source and full article Data mining methods and LASSO should be considered as valuable methods to detect independent associations in large epidemiologic datasets.

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Source and full article The supplement also aims to illustrate how the concepts of mass critical care are integrated across the spectrum of surge events from conventional through contingency to crisis standards of care.

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Source and full article Interspecies transmission of equine influenza A(H3N8) virus has resulted in establishment of a canine influenza virus. To determine if something similar could happen with cats, we experimentally infected 14 cats with the equine influenza A(H3N8) virus. All showed clinical signs, shed virus, and transmitted the virus to a contact cohort.

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Source and full article These results demonstrated for the first time that HA-222D/G quasispecies of A(H1N1)pdm09 caused severe biphasic influenza because of fast viral intra-host evolution, which enabled partial antibody escape and minor changes in receptor binding.

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Source and full article In conclusion, our study substantiates that both the environmental and socioeconomic variables jointly determined the global spreading trend of H5N1, but environmental variables played a more important role.

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Continuous reassortments with local chicken H9N2 virus underlie the human-infecting influenza A (H7N9) virus in the new influenza season, Guangdong, China – Online First – Springer

August 28, 2014

Source and full article A number of studies have revealed that the H7N9 virus exhibited great diversity represented by both the surface protein-encoding genes and the internal genes during the first influenza seaso

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The Cottontail Rabbit and the next pandemic

August 28, 2014

Source and full article CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, cottontails have not been previously assessed for AIV shedding. However, it was obvious that they shed AIV RNA extensively via the nasal and oral routes. This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, […]

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Why has Not There been More Research of Concern?

August 28, 2014

Source and full article This argument builds on such considerations to examine the limitations and implications of the risk-benefit experiment of concern framing, the politics of expertise as well as the prospects for alternative responses.

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Nitazoxanide: A first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent with action against H7N9

August 28, 2014

Source and full article Nitazoxanide inhibits a broad range of influenza A and B viruses including influenza A(pH1N1) and the avian A(H7N9) as well as viruses that are resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors.

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Biosafety in the balance.

August 28, 2014

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Avian influenza H9N2 subtype in Poland – characterization of the isolates and evidence of concomitant infection.

August 28, 2014

Source and full article Although no microbiological culture was performed, we speculate that these secondary pathogens could play a role in the pathogenicity of the current H9N2 infections.

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Complete protection against lethal challenge of novel H7N9 virus with heterologous inactivated H7 vaccine in mice.

August 28, 2014

Source and full article The results have direct implications on how to overcome potential vaccine shortage and identify donors for immune sera for passive immunization.

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Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (

August 28, 2014

Source and full article We conclude that black-headed gulls are highly susceptible to disease with a high mortality rate and are thus more likely to act as sentinel species for the presence of the virus than as long-distance carriers of the virus to new geographical areas.

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Full-genome analysis of avian influenza virus H9N2 from Bangladesh reveals internal gene reassortments with two distinct highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

August 28, 2014

Source and full article Examination of the hemagglutinin cleavage site of LPAIV H9N2 confirmed its low pathogenicity. The receptor-binding sites indicated a binding preference for human-type receptors. Several mutations in internal proteins are associated with increased virulence and altered host range, while other amino acids were found to be highly conserved among LPAIV H9N2 isolates.

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Genetic Changes of Reemerged Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China – Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 – Emerging Infectious Disease journal – CDC

August 28, 2014

Source and full article High similarity of these 5 segments with those of locally circulating subtype H9N2 viruses suggests that rapid and continued reassortment with circulating subtype H9N2 viruses occurred during the second wave of the influenza A(H7N9) virus epidemic. Because reassortment and genetic changes can contribute to host fitness and infection capacity of reemerged […]

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