Source and full article . Therefore, we defined a novel pathogenic determinant, providing further insights into the pathogenesis of influenza viruses in mammals.

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Source and full article This outbreak highlights the risk for an H3N2 influenza outbreak among vaccinated and otherwise healthy young persons.

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Source and full article Closure of live poultry markets was implemented in areas affected by the influenza virus A(H7N9) outbreak in China during winter, 2013-14. Our analysis showed that closing live poultry markets in the most affected cities of Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces was highly effective in reducing the risk for H7N9 infection in humans.

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Source and full article Abstract
We report on a case of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in Jilin Province in northeastern China. This case was associated with a poultry farm rather than a live bird market, which may point to a new focus for public health surveillance and interventions in this evolving outbreak.

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Source and full article Risk factors for influenza A seropositivity include older age, poultry contact, flock visitors and older purchase age. Study flocks had H5 virus exposure as recently as March 2010, but no HPAI H5N1 outbreaks have been identified in Thailand since 2008, highlighting a need for rigorous FGD surveillance.

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Source and full article The most common reason for refusal was that the patient did not believe they were at risk (50%). A desire for further advice (16%) and a fear of adverse events (13%) were also common responses, with 22% of eligible patients stating other reasons for refusal. These distributions were similar for individual influenza seasons.

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Source and full article The authors say, “The antigenic sites of [hemagglutinin] proteins of the H7N9 strains from different hosts were highly conserved,” and they conclude, “The risk of new infection is low in individuals who have contact with infected patients, poultry, or a contaminated environment in the early stages of the circulation of the H7N9 virus.”

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Source and full article The RNA-enzyme interactions determined here could likely be used to design more specific endonuclease inhibitors to fight influenza viral infections

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Investigation of the binding and cleavage characteristics of N1 neuraminidases from avian, seasonal, and pandemic influenza viruses using saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance.

October 23, 2014

Source and full article These findings have implications regarding the replication cycle of influenza infection in the host where different sialidase activities would influence penetration through the respiratory mucin barrier and the release of the newly generated virus from the infected cells.

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UK scientists criticize White House ban on studies that increase virus potency or transmissibility | The BMJ

October 23, 2014

Source and full article UK scientists have criticized a ban by the US administration on studies that increase the potency or transmissibility of viruses, saying that such studies were needed to increase understanding of viruses and to improve vaccines against them.

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A prospective observational study of oseltamivir safety and tolerability in infants and young children ≤24 months – Rath – 2014 – Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety – Wiley Online Library

October 23, 2014

Source and full article Oseltamivir has a good tolerability profile in infants and children aged ≤24 months. These findings contributed to the recent FDA approval of oseltamivir for treating infants aged 2–51 weeks.

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A ripe time for gaining ground – Nature.com

October 23, 2014

Source and full article In February 2012, the US Department of Health and Human Services added another layer of review for grant proposals involving GOF research, but only for H5N1; this was extended to H7N9 in August 2013. The research community became deeply polarized …

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Government says it would stockpile Tamiflu again | The BMJ

October 22, 2014

Source and full article The government has said that it would stockpile the antiviral drug oseltamivir (marketed by Roche as Tamiflu) again, despite large amounts of previously bought supplies being written off and questions raised by experts over its effectiveness, MPs have been told.

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Population viscosity suppresses disease emergence by preserving local herd immunity

October 22, 2014

Source and full article Our theory of bridge communities may help guide prevention and explain historical emergence events, where disruption of stable economic, political or demographic processes reduced population viscosity at ecological interfaces.

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Virulence Determinants in the PB2 Gene 1 of a Mouse-Adapted H9N2 Virus

October 22, 2014

Source and full article The molecular basis of adaptation and pathogenicity of H9N2 influenza virus in mammals is largely unknown. Here we show that a mouse-adapted PB2 gene with a phenylalanine-to-leucine mutation (F404L) mainly contributes to the enhanced polymerase activity, replication, and pathogenicity of H9N2 in mice,

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Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Infection in Guangdong Province, China

October 22, 2014

Source and full article Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission.

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The plague index: which diseases could still cause chaos? – New Statesman

October 22, 2014

Source and full article Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Our profligate and imprudent use of antibiotics has led to the emergence and spread of bacteria that resist their effect. MRSA, XTB and a gamut of other resistant infections are widespread and kill many thousands each …

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Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

October 22, 2014

Source and full article Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further.

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